इस मन्त्र में वाचकलुप्तोपमालङ्कार है। जैसे घोड़ों के सिखाने वाले ऋतु-ऋतु के प्रति घोड़ों को अच्छा सिखलाते हैं, वैसे गुरुजन विद्यार्थियों को क्रिया करना सिखलाते हैं वा जैसे अग्नि में पिण्डों का होम कर पवन की शुद्धि करते हैं, वैसे विद्यारूपी अग्नि में अविद्यारूप भ्रमों को होम के आत्माओं की शुद्धि करते हैं॥४२॥
Vedas are the ancient source of true knowledge, as given by GOD in the hearts of four ancient saints namely AGNI, VAYU, ADITYA, and ANGIRA. These are the books of righteousness.
Vedas contain all spiritual and material knowledge. Every kind of knowledge in the world is spread from Vedas. Vedic knowledge along with the Yoga Practices (as explained in Vedas and by Seer PATANJALI), can bring peace, happiness, welfare, and prosperity to mankind; and a man can achieve salvation by the performance of Yoga.
The purpose of this website is to promote and propagate the Vedas, Vedic Literature, and Yoga (based on Patanjali Yog Sutra) “as it is”, and to make people aware of the values and strength of the Vedas, Vedic Scriptures, and Raj-yoga.
Aryabhata was born in 476 AD. This was the golden age of India. India was one of the leading countries in the world, with overall development under the empire of Gupta in Magadha. He was born in village Kusumpur, near Paatlipura (known as Patna, nowadays). He was a well-known mathematician and astrologer. He was also having good only on astronomy. His famous book is “Aryabhatiya”. This book was written in 499 AD. This book is divided into four parts; and written in formula style. This book is in the style of “To express too much in too few words”. For example, in one stanza, five rules of mathematics get included. It fourth part is known as “Golapaada”, having 11 shlokas only. These Shlokas include full principles of “Surya Siddhanta”. He was also a great scholar of trigonometry. He had corrected many principles of trigonometry. In his book “Aryabhatiya” there is a reference to trigonometry in the first chapter. He was first person to use pie (= value of 22/7) in mathematics. He had used schedules for the first time. His mathematical rules and principles are taught in mathematics at present. He had shown that the earth is round, and rotates on its axis. He had also discussed and analyzed the movement of constellations. In his work of “Surya Siddhanta” he had analyzed the causes of solar and lunar eclipses and established that this due to the shadow of the moon and earth, not on account of so-called demons ‘Rahu’ and ‘Ketu’. The period of a year, established by him, was more clear and accurate, than that of Talmi, an astrologer of Greece. He had established that a year is equal to 365.2586805 days, which is just equal to present-day calculations. He had a completer command over astrology. He was a brilliant astrologer. He had established coordination arithmetic and astrological mathematics calculations. He had described such principles of mathematics, by which area of a triangle, circle, cone, the sphere can be calculated very easily. His total research is available in his books — “Aryabhatiya”, “danshagiitika” etc. He is not only famous in India but also in foreign countries.
Seer Kapila was the son of Seer Kardam. His mother was Devahuti, who was the daughter of seer Manu. He was a great valours seer, and some people opine that he was in the family lineage of Seer Gautama. His main pupil was Asuri, since as per a shloka, it is said — “Knowledge of ‘Saankhya’ philosophy, which was extinct, was given by Seer Kapila to Acharya Asuri”. Further ‘Panchashikha’ was a pupil of Acharya Asuri, and Seer Jaigiishravya had got the knowledge of Saankya Philosophy from ‘Panchashikha’. These seers had spread Saankhya philosophy. Saankhya is the enumeration school that poisted a dualism between Matter and the Soul, which are real though ontologically distinct. Saankhya philosophy is in the form “Saankhya Darshan”, which is divided into six chapters and having a total of 527 aphorisms. Seer Kapial had analyzed detailed principles of Soul, non-Soul, Matter, and its products. There are two objects — Matter and Soul; further Soul is of two types — one common Soul, which is innumerable, and the other is Supreme Lord, who is One, who are conscious objects. Matter is the name of three qualities of ‘Illumination’, ‘Activity’, and ‘Inertia’ jointly. Matter and its 23 products, from ‘Mahatattva’ = the ‘Element of Pure Beness’ to Earth, are inanimate; these donot serve any purpose for themselves. These are regulated and are for the use of Soul only. Both Soul and Matter are eternal. Saankhya philosophy declares that any existing objects cannot be created from non-existence, and existing objects cannot be destroyed, only its form changes and become non-visible. This is called its destruction. Seer Kapila was not a philosopher, but also he a great scientist. He had described the principles of the creation of the universe, and the existence of energy which was inactive before the starting of creation. These principles are recognized by the scientist of the present day.
Seer Kanaada is the author of “VaisheShika Darshan”. As per ‘Vaayu Purana’, he was born at ‘Prabhaasapaatan’ near Dwaaraka, India, and was a pupil of Acharya Soma Sharma. His original name was “Uuluuka Muni”. His time is believed to be before Lord Buddha. He used to collect grains that fell on the earth during transportation, for his meals. In this way, being the proper utilizer of every part of grains, he was known by the name of ‘KaNaada’. Another explanation of his name is that he had propagated the principle of the atom, so he was known as ‘Kanaada’. “VaisheShika Darshan” is the main book of aphorisms of VaisheShika. There is a commentary on “VaisheShika Darshan” by ‘Acharya Prashastapaada’, with the name of ‘Padaartha Dharma Sangraha’. What is an atom? An atom is the sixtieth part of a subtle dust particle that can be seen in the sunlight coming through a window. This atom is eternal in form. Due to its specific properties, it has separate existence in every object. These properties are described in “VaisheShika Darshan”. “VaisheShika Darshan” is divided into 10 chapters, and having 370 aphorisms. As per “VaisheShika Darshan”, there are six types of ‘padaarth’ in the universe, namely — substance, quality, activity, generality, particularity, inherence. As per Seer Kanaada, there are nine substances —earth, water, fire, air, ether = sky, time, space, soul, mind. There are 24 qualities — color, taste, smell, touch, number, size/dimension/quantity, individuality, conjunction/accompaniments, disjunction, priority, posteriority, knowledge, pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, effort, heaviness, fluidity, viscosity, merit, demerit, sound, and faculty. There are 5 five types of activities — protrusion = throwing upward, precipitation = throwing downward, contraction, expansion, and movement. Generality is the existence of common property in many objects. The particularity is the property by which we can perceive substances as different from one another. Inherence is the relation between the cause and the effect. It is the relationship existing between the substances that are inseparable, standing to one another in the relation of the container and the contained. In this book, Seer Kanaada has shown that righteousness is one by which attainment of both – i.e. worldly happiness and spiritual bliss are achieved.
Seer Manu is ancient among Vedic seers. The importance of a constitution for a happy social life and national life is very obvious. He is the first formulator of the human constitution, which is known as “Manusmriti”. It is the most famous, most discussed, commonly accepted scripture of righteousness in the history of mankind. Further, it is also the oldest and is existing scripture since the beginning of human life. It is referred in various Vedic scriptures, like Shatapatha and other BrahmaNas; therefore whatever it is said that — “whatever is said in the “Manusmriti” is considered beneficial like a meal and medicine”. Swami Dayananda Saraswati had also accepted that the time of Seer Manu was at the beginning of the creation. It means that Seer Manu is the first advisor of systems and decorum of humans and social life. It advises the duties of all the four classes of people in detail. Systems prescribed by Seer Manu are relevant at all times and are acceptable at all places. The reason behind it, that these teachings and systems are according to Vedas. Another important feature of “Manusmriti” is that it accepts Vedas as testimony. On account of this feature, “Manusmriti” was respected by various classes of people at all times. “Manusmriti” teaches us that what is success of human-life, and how it can be achieved.
In ancient India, intellectuals have done new researches in the field of mathematics, astronomy, and astrology, and increased the knowledge of the world in these fields. Apart from this, intellectuals had played a great role in the field of chemistry. Naagaarjuna was one of such famous chemists. He was born in District Raipur, Chattisgarh. Village Balu was his birthplace which was existing at the base of the Satpuda range. His father was a Southern brahmana, was a devotee of Lord Shiva, and was performing various religious rituals. He had studied Vedas and its limbs in childhood. Then he had gone to a high school at Shripura. This was the beginning time of the first century. At that time Shripura was the capital of ‘Mahakaushala’. There was a university also in Shripura, where students from various countries and states of India, used to come to study. Naagaarjuna had studied the principles of Bodha school there, and adopted it as his religion. On account of his talent and wisdom, he was appointed as a professor at the same university. At that time there a great famine in the state of ‘Mahakaushala’. Because of no rain for 12 years, people were dying of hunger. Then the king consented to Naagaarjuna on this problem and requested him to solve it. Since Naagaarjuna was a chemist, he started working on the problem and solitude himself. After deep thinking of the subject, he sent a message to the King, to collect all copper from the state and sent it to his hermitage. King had done so. Within some days he had converted that copper into gold, and called the king there and handed over the whole stock of gold to him and said that — sell this gold to various places and buy the grains and distribute among the people of the state. In this way, Naagaarjuna had solved the problem with the help of his knowledge of chemistry. He was a great scientist. He was aware of the science of converting low priced metals into gold. This science is explained in his book ‘Rasahridya’. Naagaarjuna was also an expert in medical science and surgery. He had edited “Sushruta Samhita” of Acharya Sushruta and added some new chapters in it. In the field of chemistry, his important books are — ‘Ras Hridaya’, ‘Ras Ratnaakar’, and ‘Rasendra Mangala’. His contribution to the field of medical science is also remarkable. In this field, his important books are — ‘Aarogya Manjari’, ‘Kaksha Kannatantra’, ‘Yogasaara’, and ‘Yogaashtaka’. He had also invented mercury. And found the system of creating essence from that. He believed that if the essence of metals is consumed, then the body can remain disease-free. Apart from it, he was a great philosopher.
Vaarahamihir was born in Ujjaini, Madhya Pradesh, India; and his year of birth is believed to be in Vikram Era 556. His father’s name was Sh. Aaditya Dass and Mother’s name was Smt. Satyavatii. King Vikramaditya was highly impressed with your astrological and astronomical knowledge. This is the reason that he was known as one of the nine jewels in the court of King Vikramaditya. He was 24 years younger than the great mathematician Aryabhata and was in his period. He had done many new types of research in the field of astrology and wrote many books on astrology. One of his famous works is “panch-siddhanta”. In this book has described new researches along with the existing ancient principle of astrology. It is believed that this book was written in 505 AD. He was having the best knowledge of astronomy in addition to astrology. In the first part of the above-said book, principles of astronomy are described in detail. During that period he was the first to establish that the earth is round. During his period there were friendly relations between India and Greece. People of Greece were doing good research in science and technology at that time. Since he was curious about knowledge, so he had studied culture of Greece and astrology in detail. Apart from “panch-siddhanta”, there two more important works are — “Brihad Jaatak” and “Brihat Samhita”. In these books, he had described the subjects of physics, geography, the science of constellations, botany, zoology, and also discussed the social and political practices prevailing at that time. From these books, we can know about old scientific researches at that time. He was having a great hold on botany. He had done great work on the diseases of plants and their prevention. He along with Aryabhat and others was well aware that planets and sub-planets shine from the light received from constellations; further they also knew the speed of earth on its axis.
Acharya Bhaaradvaaja was the son of great seer Brihaspati. His mother’s name was Smt. Mamta. Seer Brihaspati is said to be known as teacher of gods = intellectuals. As per one of the ancient opinions, Jamadagni, VashiShTa, Bhaaradvaaja, Gautam, Atri, Vishvamitra and Agastya are the seven famous seers. Acharya Kaatyaayana in “SarvanukramaNi” opined that Acharya Bhaaradvaaja is the seer = viewer = knower of six Mandalas of Rigveda. He was a writer and advisor of many scriptures. As per a story of “Taittiriiya BraahmaNa”, he was a long-lived seer having an age of more than 300 years. “Bhaaravaaja Shiksha”, “Bhaaradvaaja Shrauta”, “Bhaaradvaaja Grihaya Sutra” and “Anshumatantra” are his most important books. It is also believed that he had written “Yantra-sarvasva” related to ‘Brihad Vimanashaastra’, ‘Aakaasha Shaastra’ and other related instruments related to airplane science. Apart from it, he had also wrote an important book on Ayurveda = Medical science. There is a reference to a great meeting of medical science in ‘Charaka’, in which eleven great seers had taken part, and Acharaya Bhaaradvaja was one of them.
He was born in Vikram era 1114, i.e. 1057 AD. Some people believe that he was born at Biijapur, KaraNataka, while others opine that he was born in Dist Jalagaon, Maharastra. His father’s name was Maheshwara. He was the best intellectual in Mathematics. He had given the principle of gravitation. As per this principle, earth attracts everything towards it on account of gravitational force in it. At present credit for this principle is given to Newton, who described it in 1698 in Europe. Whereas this principle was established even 500 years before by Bhaskaracharaya. He became famous in the field of astronomy and was known as an astronomer. His famous book ‘Liilaavati’ is a great work in the field of mathematics. This book was dedicated to his daughter Liilaavati, who was his daughter. This book is in the form of shlokas and is easy to remember and study. Its importance can be understood from the fact that this book got translated into many foreign languages. He had used the decimal system in this book; mathematical procedures were described in an easy way. In addition to the process of ‘add, subtract, multiply, division, square root, many other useful principles are described in this book. His two books are very famous — ‘Shiddhanta ShiromaNi’, and ‘Surya Siddhanta’. ‘Shiddhanta ShiromaNi’ has four chapters namely ‘Liilavati’, Algebra, Arithmetics, and ‘Goladhyaaya’. He was also a great astrologer. At that time telescope was not in existence, even after that his detailed knowledge of planets, constellations, their positioning is surprising. He used to forget taking his meals and rest, even while studying the planetary system in the intermediate space. He was also a great astronomer. In this field, his famous work is ‘KarNa Kutuhala’. In this book, there is a description of math astrology = astronomy, and schedules. His books and researches in the field of mathematics and astrology became world-famous.
Sushruta is the first name in the field of ‘shalyakriyaa’ = surgery. He was a famous and efficient surgeon. The literal meaning of ‘shalya’ is the pain of the body. The act that removes this pain is called surgery. It is a normal illusion that surgery was started in Europe for the first time. Whereas it was well developed in ancient India and was in practice. Knowledge of Surgery was known to mankind since beginning, but it was painful, since not being developed. At that time, the probability of death during surgery was more. Sushruta had formulated a systematic procedure for surgery. He had done a great job, by organizing this science in a systematic way, which resulted in the attainment of health for human-beings with less pain or even without pain. Acharya Sushruta was in the family lineage of seer Vishvamitra, who was a great scientist. His famous book on the surgery is “Sushruta Samhita”, which is said to be a collection of lectures given by “Dhanavantri” to him. His book “Sushruta Samhita” is considered authentic in the field of surgery even today. The invention of “Plastic surgery” is said as one of the most important achievements of medical science; and American scientists take it credit. But Acharya Sushruta had described plastic surgery procedures in his book. It was mentioned by him, to increase beauty of the nose, ear, lip, or face, the skin of that area is to be removed, and use skin of another part of the body is on the targeted area. In this way, the beauty of that organ gets increased. In this way, people used to change their appearance at that time. This system of plastic surgery was adopted by doctors of Europe and now is popular all over the world. The time of “Sushruta Samhita” is believed to be about 600 BC. This book is in Sanskrit. The great chemist Naagaarjuna had edited this book, at the beginning of the first century. Acharya Sushruta used to teach medical practices and procedures to his students. He got his students to practice the cutting procedure on fruits and vegetables in the beginning. After this, students used to practice on dead bodies. While teaching he used to perform surgical operations on dead bodies and also make his students do it on the dead bodies for proper practice. He had invented more than 100 instruments for surgical procedures. There is also a detailed description of various types of plants in his book “Sushruta Samhita”. He believed that doctors should have practical experience, in addition to the bookish knowledge of medical principles.
Charaka was a great teacher of medical science. He was the state doctor of King KaniShka. His famous work is “Charak Samhita”. The original text of this was written by “Agnivesha”. Acharya Charak had edited it and made it more useful by adding some new chapters to it. He had done many kinds of research in Ayurveda and written many reference articles, which are later on included in the book. The original text of this book is in Sanskrit. It is a part of the syllabus for the study of Ayurveda, in all Indian Ayurvedic Institutes and Universities. There are eight parts of this book, namely — (1) Sutra-sthaana, (2) Nidaana-sthaana, (3) Vimaana-sthaana, (4) Shariira-sthaana, (5) Indrya-sthaana, (6) chikitsaa-sthaana, (7) Kalpa-sthaan, and (8) Siddhi-sthaan. In these eight parts, there is a description of various limbs of the body, properties, and introduction of plants and herbs. He believed that a doctor should not be merely intellectual, but he shall also be kind and virtuous. Oaths required to be taken before taking this profession, are given in Charaka-Samhita. It is compulsory for all doctors to comply with these oaths during that period. This book has already been translated into Arabi and English languages. Intellectuals of those languages had also written commentary on the original text. Acharya Charaka is honored with the title of the great king of medical science, for his services in Ayurveda.
Acharya Chanakya was the son of Acharya ChaNaka, his first name was VishNugupta as given by his father. He was born in Patliputra, the capital of the empire of Magadha. Acharya ChaNaka was arrested by King Dhananand, for raising his voice against his tyranny, and was sent to prison. Later he died there. After the death of his father, Vishnugupta went to Takshila. There he studied economics and became a professor. At that time Takshilaa was the best university in the world. Students of Europe, Greece, Asia, and African countries used to come there for the study of various sciences. Before the invasion of Alexander, India was divided in various small states. With the intention of becoming a world winner, Alexander had attacked India. At that time Acharya Chanakya had played an important role in uniting various states. Acharya Chanakya had prayed to Dhananad, King of Magadha, for military help against the invasion of Sikander, but he had not refused for such help but also insulted Acharya Chanakya. Then Acharya Chanakya had taken an oath, that he will not bind his hairs on the head till he deposes the King Dhananand. He destroyed the Nand dynasty and established Chandragupta as Emporer of whole India starting from Gaandhaara (at present known as Afghanistan), Though he was Prime Minister of that Magadha empire, yet his nature was like a devout sage only. According to one of the references, he used to live in a small hut only. He was an efficient politician and diplomat. He was following the policy of conciliation, gratification, punishment, and dissension. He was also a skilled doctor and chemist. In his book, ‘arthashaastra’ he had described the method of preparing and using various chemical weapons. With the use of these weapons — fire, fainting, awakening, sleep, lethargy, madness, and illusion were used to be created. “Kautilya Arthashaastra” is his most famous book, and is the best book on politics in the world. Apart from it, he had written ‘Vriddha Chanakya’, ‘Chanakya Niiti’, ‘Laghu Chanakya’, and ‘Chankakya Raajaniiti’ etc.
He was the son of Satyavati, adopted daughter of the fisherman Dusharaj and the wandering sage Parashara. He was born on an island in the river Yamuna. Due to his dark complexion, Vyasa was also given the name Krishna, in addition to the name Dwaipayana, meaning "island-born". Vyasa was the compiler of, and an important character in, the Mahabharata. His other works are a commentary on Yoga-sutra of seer Patanjali; and author of Brahma-sutra. His commentary on Yoga aphorisms is the only authentic commentary. This commentary explains the principles of Yoga, as described by Seer Patanjali, in the various aphorism, as per principles of Vedas and other seers. This scripture explains how a man can have cognizance of Soul, God, and attain salvation = emancipation. Apart from spiritual goals, Yoga also explains various attainments that help a man to achieve prosperity and superior most position in his present life. His other work is “Vedanta Darshan” which is also known as “Brahma-Sutra”. This contains four chapters, it explains the Supreme Lord. It explains and clarifies various points of Upanishads, and clarifies their meanings that these contexts are related to the Supreme Lord or Soul. These contexts of Upanishads contain such terms where it is not clear that is meant for GOD or other material worldly objects, e.g. ‘praaNa’, ‘aakaasha’, ‘jyoti’ etc. It is clarified in the Vedanta Philosophy that these words, used in Upanishads are not meant for worldly objects, but are meant of the Supreme Lord only.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born in 1824 in village Tankaara, Moravi, Gujarat. His father of Karshan Ji Tiwari, who was a devotee of Lord Shiva. He had studied the Sanskrit language and other scriptures at the age of 14, at home. He was a brilliant intellectual, knower of Vedas and Vedic scriptures, a true devotee of Supreme Lord, having attained ultra-cognitive trance, strong patriot, famous social reformer, lover of truth, supreme celibate, having realized Supreme Spirit, extremely powerful, self-restrained, passionate and merciful for living-beings. Swami Ji had established the best importance and authenticity of Vedas. He had countered and opposed superstitions, social evils, child-marriage, cow-slaughter, foreign rule; and counter-argued all beliefs, which are against Vedas in a scientific, logical way. He had performed various tasks in the field of righteous thoughts of Vedas, study, and teaching of Vedas and Vedic scriptures, woman-education, remarriage of the widow, maintenance of cows, established Sanskrit and Hindi language as prominent Indian languages, a system of 16 rituals to be performed by a man, He had stressed that development of all in terms of body, soul, and society, is to be understood as a development of oneself. He wrote a revolutionary book – “Satyartha Prakash”, which includes all important knowledge starting from GOD, for the overall development of human-being. In the second part of this book, he had crossed examined all the beliefs which are against Vedas and were prevailing at that time throughout the world, without partiality. Any one who studies this book, can not remain atheist and will come out of all superstitions. He had logically established that knowledge of Vedas is the knowledge of Supreme Lord, which was given to human beings at the beginning of creation, through four Seers, naming Agni, Vaayu, Aditya, and Angira. He had started commentary on Vedas, wrote an introduction to Vedas, naming – “Rigvedaadi-bhaahsya-bhoomika”, and completed a commentary on Yajurveda, and up to 7.61.2 of Rigveda, during his lifetime. His prime teaching was — Return to Vedas. He preached that Vedas contain all true sciences, and it is the prime duty of ‘Aryas’ to study, teach, listen, and make others listen to Vedas. He had also inspired the people of India for self-rule, with the result many patriots had given their lives, wealth for the freedom of India.
Written by Satish AryaMore Books
Written by Satish AryaMore Books
Written by Satish AryaMore Books
Written by Satish AryaMore Books
Written by Satish AryaMore Books
English Translation of commentary of Swami Dayanand Saraswati on Yajurveda has since completed.